Instantaneous reactive power p-q theory and power properties of three-phase systems

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This paper investigates how power phenomena and properties of three-phase systems are described and interpreted by the Instantaneous Reactive Power (IRP) p-q Theory. This paper demonstrates that this theory misinterprets power properties of electrical systems or provides some results that at least defy a common sense or meaning of some notions in electrical engineering. For example, it suggests the presence of an instan-taneous reactive current in supply lines of purely resistive loads and the presence of an instantaneous active current in supply lines of purely reactive loads. Moreover, it suggests that line currents of linear loads with sinusoidal supply voltage contain a nonsinusoidal component. This paper shows, moreover, that the IRP p-q Theory is not capable to identify power properties of three-phase loads instantaneously. A pair of instantaneous values p-q powers does not allow us to conclude whether the load is resistive, reactive, balanced, or unbalanced. It is known that a load imbalance reduces power factor. However, the IRP p-q Theory does not identify the load imbalance as the cause of power factor degradation. © 2006 IEEE.

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IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery

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