PATET ratio by Doppler echocardiography: noninvasive detection of pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension

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Pulmonary artery acceleration time (PAT) and PAT: ejection time (PATET) ratio are echocardiographic measurements of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). These noninvasive quantitative measurements are ideal to follow longitudinally through the clinical course of PAH, especially as it relates to the need for and/or response to treatment. This review article focuses on the current literature of PATET measurement for infants and children as it relates to the shortening of the PATET ratio in PAH. At the same time, further development of PATET as an outcome measure for PAH in preclinical models, particularly mice, such that the field can move forward to human clinical studies that are both safe and effective. Here, we present what is known about PATET in infants and children and discuss what is known in preclinical models with particular emphasis on neonatal mouse models. In both animal models and human disease, PATET allows for longitudinal measurements in the same individual, leading to more precise determinations of disease/model progression and/or response to therapy. IMPACT: PATET ratio is a quantitative measurement by a noninvasive technique, Doppler echocardiography, providing clinicians a more precise/accurate, safe, and longitudinal assessment of pediatric PAH. We present a brief history/state of the art of PATET ratio to predict PAH in adults, children, infants, and fetuses, as well as in small animal models of PAH. In a preliminary study, PATET shortened by 18% during acute hypoxic exposure compared to pre-hypoxia. Studies are needed to establish PATET, especially in mouse models of disease, such as bronchopulmonary, as a routine measure of PAH.

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Pediatric research

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