Emerging Relationships Between Vitamin D Status, Physical Activity Habits, and Immune Indices in College-Aged Females

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It has been determined that individuals who are regularly physically active have more favorable inflammatory profiles; less is known about how vitamin D levels can impact inflammation. This study explored the relationship between inflammatory indices in physically active (PA) and not physically active (NPA) individuals with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations either above or below optimal concentrations. All female subjects (n = 63, age 19 - 35 years) were evaluated for body composition, maximal aerobic capacity (VO2peak), and anaerobic power (Wingate). Blood samples were analyzed for 25OHD and C-reactive protein (CRP), stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and assessed for interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, and used for flow cytometric analysis. PA (n = 30) had higher 25OHD levels (45.2 ± 2.7 vs. 17.05 ± 1.4 ng / mL; p = 0.015), higher VO2peak (p < 0.0001), lower body weight (p = 0.039) and lower estimated percent body fat (p = 0.011) compared to NPA (n = 33). PA also had lower LPS-stimulated IL-6 production compared to NPA (p = 0.0163), although there were no differences between resting CRP concentrations. NPA with optimal 25OHD had fewer total monocytes, CD14CD16cells, CD14CD16 cells, and decreased TLR4 expression on CD14CD16 cells compared to NPA with suboptimal 25OHD (< 32 ng / mL). In summary, regular physical activity was associated with higher serum 25OHD, healthier measures of body composition, and reduced stimulated IL-6 production. However, optimal vitamin D status was not associated with anti-inflammatory benefits beyond those which are provided by regular physical activity.

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International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition

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