Bovine papillomavirus E5 oncoprotein expression and its association with an interactor network in aggresome-autophagy pathway

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E5 protein, the major oncoprotein of bovine Deltapapillomavirus (BPV), was found to be expressed in 18 of 21 examined urothelial cancers of cattle. E5 oncoprotein was found to interact with p62 which was degraded through the autophagosome-lysosome pathway as well as LC3-II and appeared to be involved in the phosphorylation of the α-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Autophagy was morphologically documented by transmission electron microscope (TEM) through the detection of double-membrane autophagosomes and autolysosomes. Overexpression of Bag3 known to mediate selective autophagy was also demonstrated. Furthermore, Bag3 and BPV E5 oncoprotein were seen to co-localize with dynein and 14-3-3γ, which suggested that Bag3 could be involved in inducing the retrograde transport of BPV E5 along microtubules to aggresomes, perinuclear sites with high autophagic flux. Electron dense perinuclear structures consistent with aggresomes were also documented by TEM in urothelial cancer cells. Finally, Bag3 was found to also interact with synaptopodin 2 (Synpo2), which would seem to contribute to cargo degradation as it has been shown to facilitate autophagosome formation. This study provides mechanistic insights into the potential role(s) of autophagy in BPV disease, which can help to develop future treatment and control measures for BPV infection. Activation of autophagy correlates positively with BPV infection and may play a role in biological behavior of bladder cancer as urothelial carcinomas of cattle are known to be characterized by a relatively low rate of metastasis.

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Veterinary microbiology

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