Relationship between Uveal Inflammation and Viral Detection in 30 Cats with Feline Infectious Peritonitis
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus is the most common infectious cause of uveitis in cats. Confirmatory diagnosis is usually only reached at postmortem examination. The relationship between the histologic inflammatory pattern, which depends on the stage of the disease, and the likelihood of detection of the viral antigen and/or RNA has not been investigated. We hypothesized that viral detection rate by either immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization or RT-qPCR is dependent upon the predominant type of uveal inflammatory response (i.e., pyogranulomatous vs. plasmacytic). Thus, the aims of this study were to evaluate cases of FIP-induced uveitis, localize the viral antigen and RNA, and assess the relationship between the inflammatory pattern (macrophage- vs. plasma cell-rich) and the likelihood of detecting the FIP antigen and/or RNA. We evaluated 30 cats with FIP-induced uveitis. The viral antigen and/or RNA were detected within uveal macrophages in 11/30 cases, of which 8 tested positive by RT-qPCR. Correlation analysis determined a weak to moderate but significant negative correlation between the degree of plasmacytic uveal inflammation and the likelihood of detecting the FIP antigen and RNA. This study suggests that predominance of plasmacytic inflammation in cases of FIP uveitis reduces the odds of a confirmatory diagnosis through the viral detection methods available.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland)
Carossino, M., Del Piero, F., Lee, J., Needle, D. B., Levine, J. M., Riis, R. R., Maes, R., Wise, A. G., Mullaney, K., Ferracone, J., & Langohr, I. M. (2022). Relationship between Uveal Inflammation and Viral Detection in 30 Cats with Feline Infectious Peritonitis. Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 11 (8) https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11080883