BoHV-1-Vectored BVDV-2 Subunit Vaccine Induces BVDV Cross-Reactive Cellular Immune Responses and Protects against BVDV-2 Challenge

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The bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) remains a major problem for both beef and dairy cattle industries worldwide. BRDC frequently involves an initial viral respiratory infection resulting in immunosuppression, which creates a favorable condition for fatal secondary bacterial infection. Current polyvalent modified live vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1(BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) have limitations concerning their safety and efficacy. To address these shortcomings and safety issues, we have constructed a quadruple gene mutated BoHV-1 vaccine vector (BoHV-1 QMV), which expresses BVDV type 2, chimeric E2 and Flag-tagged Erns-fused with bovine granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) designated here as QMV-BVD2*. Here we compared the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of QMV-BVD2* vaccination in calves against BVDV-2 with Zoetis Bovi-shield Gold 3 trivalent (BoHV-1, BVDV types 1 and 2) vaccine. The QMV-BVD2* prototype subunit vaccine induced the BoHV-1 and BVDV-2 neutralizing antibody responses along with BVDV-1 and -2 cross-reactive cellular immune responses. Moreover, after a virulent BVDV-2 challenge, the QMV-BVD2* prototype subunit vaccine conferred a more rapid recall BVDV-2-specific neutralizing antibody response and considerably better recall BVDV types 1 and 2-cross protective cellular immune responses than that of the Zoetis Bovi-shield Gold 3.

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