Cyanidin Attenuates Methylglyoxal-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in INS-1 Pancreatic β-Cells by Increasing Glyoxalase-1 Activity

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Recently, the mechanisms responsible for anti-glycation activity of cyanidin and its derivatives on the inhibition of methylglyoxal (MG)-induced protein glycation and advanced glycation-end products (AGEs) as well as oxidative DNA damage were reported. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of cyanidin against MG-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat INS-1 pancreatic β-cells. Exposure of cells to cytotoxic levels of MG (500 µM) for 12 h caused a significant reduction in cell viability. However, the pretreatment of cells with cyanidin alone (6.25-100 μM) for 12 h, or cotreatment of cells with cyanidin (3.13-100 μM) and MG, protected against cell cytotoxicity. In the cotreatment condition, cyanidin (33.3 and 100 μM) also decreased MG-induced apoptosis as determined by caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, INS-1 cells treated with MG increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during a 6 h exposure. The MG-induced increase in ROS production was inhibited by cyanidin (33.3 and 100 μM) after 3 h stimulation. Furthermore, MG diminished the activity of glyoxalase 1 (Glo-1) and its gene expression as well as the level of total glutathione. In contrast, cyanidin reversed the inhibitory effect of MG on Glo-1 activity and glutathione levels. Interestingly, cyanidin alone was capable of increasing Glo-1 activity and glutathione levels without affecting Glo-1 mRNA expression. These findings suggest that cyanidin exerts a protective effect against MG-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells by increasing the activity of Glo-1.

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