Opportunistic Fungal Infections in Small Animals

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Opportunistic fungal infections have long been recognized as rare causes of disease in immunocompetent dogs and cats. Recently, the escalating use of multiagent immunosuppression protocols (especially those that include cyclosporine) has resulted in an increased number of patients with opportunistic fungal infection encountered by small animal practitioners and has altered the typical case phenotype. Based on histologic and cytologic features such as pigmentation, hyphal diameter, and distribution in tissue, these opportunistic mycoses can be placed into categories such as phaeohyphomycosis, hyalohyphomycosis, and eumycotic mycetoma. This review aims to summarize the clinical presentations, methods for diagnosis, treatment recommendations, and prognosis for both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients with opportunistic fungal infections. An example case description is included to illustrate the most common current clinical presentation.

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Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association

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