Soot nanoparticles promote biotransformation, oxidative stress, and inflammation in murine lungs

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We previously described the physicochemical characteristics (particle size, adsorbed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], oxygen, and metal content) of butadiene soot (BDS) nanoparticles generated during incomplete combustion of the high-volume industrial petrochemical, 1,3-butadiene. We also demonstrated localization of BDS-delivered PAHs to lipid droplets of murine and human respiratory cells in vitro and up-regulation of biotransformation and oxidative stress responses in these cells. Here, the objective was to determine whether inhalation of BDS nanoparticles promotes up-regulation of Phase I biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress responses, and inflammation in the lungs of mice. Female Balb/c mice exposed to BDS (5 mg/m(3), 4 h/d, 4 d) were killed immediately or 1 day after final exposure; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected from the lungs; total RNA was extracted from one lung and histopathology performed on the other. Histopathology and BALF analysis revealed particle-laden macrophages in airways of BDS-treated mice, accompanied by neutrophilia and epithelial damage. Microarray and qRT-PCR analyses revealed up-regulation of (1) aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-responsive genes: AhR repressor (Ahrr) and cytochrome P450 IA1 and IB1(Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1); (2) oxidative stress response genes: heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1), nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nfe2l2), NADPH dehydrogenase quinone 1 (Nqo1), and glutathione peroxidase 2 (Gpx2); and (3) pro-inflammatory genes: interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-X-C motif ligand 2 (Cxcl2; analog to human IL-8) and ligand 3 (Cxcl3), and granulocyte chemotactic protein (Cxcl6). Inhalation of PAH-rich, petrochemical combustion-derived nanoparticles causes airway inflammation and induces expression of AhR-associated and oxidative stress response genes, as seen in vitro, plus pro-inflammatory genes.

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American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology

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