Myeloid differentiation protein-2-dependent and -independent neutrophil accumulation during Escherichia coli pneumonia

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Bacterial pneumonia remains a serious disease. Pattern recognition receptors play an integral role in neutrophil accumulation during pneumonia. Although myeloid differentiation protein (MD)-2 has been recognized as a key molecule for LPS signaling, the role of MD-2 in neutrophil accumulation in the lung during bacterial infection has not been explored. Here, we investigate the role of MD-2 in Escherichia coli LPS-induced lung inflammation and E. coli-induced pneumonia. LPS-induced CD14-independent neutrophil accumulation was abolished in CD14/MD-2(-/-) mice. MD-2(-/-) mice challenged with LPS displayed attenuated neutrophil influx, NF-kappaB activation, cytokine/chemokine expression, and lung histopathology. MD-2(-/-) mice transplanted with MD-2(+/+) bone marrow demonstrated decreased neutrophil influx and cytokine/chemokine expression in the lungs when challenged by LPS. MD-2(-/-) mice infected with E. coli demonstrated reduced neutrophil influx and cytokine/chemokine expression in the lungs, whereas heat-killed E. coli did not induce either neutrophil accumulation or cytokine/chemokine expression in MD-2(-/-) mice infected with E. coli. Furthermore, MD-2(-/-) mice displayed increased bacterial burden in the lungs and enhanced bacterial dissemination. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-5(-/-) mice infected with E. coli exhibited attenuated neutrophil accumulation, whereas MD-2/TLR5(-/-) mice inoculated with E. coli showed further attenuated neutrophil influx and impaired bacterial clearance. Taken together, these new findings demonstrate: (1) the important role of MD-2 in the CD14-independent LPS-mediated cascade of neutrophil influx; (2) the relative importance of bone marrow- and non-bone marrow cell-derived MD-2 in LPS-induced inflammation; and (3) the essential role of MD-2-dependent and MD-2-independent (TLR5) signaling in E. coli-induced neutrophil accumulation and pulmonary host defense.

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American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology

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