Review: Toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors in pulmonary antibacterial immunity

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Lung diseases caused by bacteria are a leading cause of death in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals as well as in children. Although neutrophil recruitment is critical to augment the host defence, excessive neutrophil accumulation results in life-threatening diseases, such as acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, it is important to modulate excessive neutrophil influx in ALI/ARDS to mitigate lung damage and mortality. A better understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying neutrophil influx is crucial to designing novel and innovative treatment strategies for ALI/ARDS. Recognition of bacteria in the lung is the critical first step leading to neutrophil influx. Pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, play an important role in the recognition of bacterial pathogens. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with the recognition of bacterial pathogens by the host is critical for the development of effective therapeutic strategies to control parenchymal damage via modulating neutrophil accumulation in the lung.

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Innate immunity

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