The NLRP6 inflammasome in health and disease

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NACHT, LRR (leucine-rich repeat), and PYD (pyrin domain) domain-containing 6 (Nlrp6) is a member of the NLR (nucleotide-oligomerization domain-like receptor) family that patrols the cytosolic compartment of cells to detect pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns. Because Nlrp6 is a recently discovered inflammasome, details of its signaling mechanism, structural assembly, and roles in host defense have yet to be determined. To date, Nlrp6 has been proposed to perform a multitude of functions ranging from control of microbiota, maintenance of epithelial integrity, and regulation of metabolic diseases to modulation of host defense during microbial infections, cancer protection, and regulation of neuroinflammation. While recent studies have questioned some of the proposed functions of Nlrp6, Nlrp6 has been shown to form an inflammasome complex and cleaves interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 during microbial infection, indicating that it is a bonafide inflammasome. In this review, we summarize the recent advancements in knowledge of the signaling mechanisms and structure of the Nlrp6 inflammasome and discuss the relevance of NLRP6 to human disease.

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Mucosal immunology

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