Dual users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes have greater positive smoking expectancies than regular smokers: a study of smoking expectancies among college students

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In the present study, we sought to determine the differences among college students using e-cigarettes, cigarettes, or both products (dual users) on smoking outcome expectancies and the role of smoking expectancies and e-cigarette use in cessation attempts. We surveyed 1,370 undergraduate college students from November 2014 to November 2016. : Participants completed questionnaires regarding demographics, smoking status/history, and expectancies. Dual users reported significantly longer smoking histories and more past quit attempts than other smoking groups. Those reporting dual use reported higher expectancies on positive/negative reinforcement and appetite/weight control subscales of the SCQ. E-cigarette use was a negative predictor of cessation attempts. College students appear to be less motivated to use e-cigarettes for cessation and dual users endorsed higher levels of smoking expectancies previously shown to negatively impact treatment outcomes. Students, especially dual users, need targeted interventions to address the dangers of using tobacco products.

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Journal of American college health : J of ACH

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