The effect of food deprivation on cigarette smoking in females

Darla E. Kendzor, Louisiana State University, Department of Psychology, 236 Audubon Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, United States.
Lauren E. Baillie
Claire E. Adams
Diana W. Stewart
Amy L. Copeland


Food deprivation is associated with increased self-administration of nicotine and other substances in laboratory animals, although little is known about the effects of food deprivation on substance use in humans. A within-subjects design was utilized to test the primary hypotheses that smoking rate and expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels would be greater among 15 female participants following a 24-hour fasting period than when participants were not food-deprived. Food-deprived participants were also expected to endorse greater negative mood, smoking urges, and pleasure from smoking, as well as less positive mood. Analyses indicated that CO levels were significantly greater in the food-deprived condition than in the non-deprived condition (p=.05), although no differences were found in the number of cigarettes smoked during the laboratory session. Participants reported significantly lower Vigor-Activity in the food-deprived condition (p=.02). No differences were found between conditions in urges to smoke or pleasure from smoking. Findings suggest that nicotine intake may increase among females during acute food deprivation.