Trainee perceptions of multicultural climate and supervision in neuropsychology

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INTRODUCTION: Mentor relationships are important in developing and supporting professional self-efficacy among psychology trainees. Additionally, the rapid diversification of the United States calls for the preparation of clinical neuropsychology trainees to work within a multicultural context. The present study aimed to assess neuropsychology trainees' perceptions of multicultural climate and supervision and if these perceptions differ based on trainee demographics. We also sought to identify aversive experiences of trainees, program strengths or weaknesses, and how programs support trainees. METHOD: Participants were 310 neuropsychology trainees (Mean age = 30.27, = 5.67) from clinical psychology graduate ( = 136), pre-doctoral internship ( = 38), and post-doctoral ( = 71) programs across the United States and Canada who completed a survey assessing perceptions to multicultural climate and supervision. 64.5% self-identified as women, 60.3% as heterosexual, and 46.1% as non-Hispanic White. 34.5% of trainees reported at least one American Disabilities Act (ADA) recognized disability. RESULTS: Though satisfied with general supervision, trainees reported overall dissatisfaction with multicultural supervision. Satisfaction with multicultural supervision did not differ by demographics. Trainees also reported various aversive experiences with supervisors, clients, and research participants that negatively impacted their training. These experiences were at times due to an aspect of the trainee's multicultural identity, with Black and Hispanic trainees being more likely to report an aversive experience. Trainees reported ways in which they felt unsupported by their programs. CONCLUSIONS: Important areas of growth for programs are discussed. Issues raised by neuropsychology trainees overlap to some degree with the experiences of trainees in other fields. Recommendations of approaches that have been successfully adopted in other fields to improve trainee satisfaction are provided. Early identification of needs that go above and beyond clinical training will allow programs to respond promptly, improve trainee satisfaction, and potentially improve the retention of trainees from diverse backgrounds.

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Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology

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