The use of clozapine among individuals with intellectual disability: a review

Ashvind N. Singh, Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-5501, USA.
Johnny L. Matson
B D. Hill
Russell D. Pella
Christopher L. Cooper
Angela D. Adkins


Clozapine has been approved in the United States since 1990 for refractory or treatment resistant schizophrenia in the general population. However, as with many other antipsychotic medications, it is being prescribed for reasons other than those indicated. Among individuals with intellectual disabilities, clozapine is increasingly being prescribed to treat behavioral problems, although the empirical evidence for such a practice is lacking. This review was undertaken as an attempt to summarize the available studies regarding the use of clozapine for behavioral purposes among individuals with intellectual disabilities. Findings of our review suggest that the effectiveness of clozapine in targeting challenging behaviors among individuals with intellectual disabilities is relatively inconclusive at present. We discuss reasons why these limitations exist and offer some solutions to help alleviate these limitations.