Non-suicidal self-injury, suicide ideation, and past suicide attempts: Comparison between transgender and gender diverse veterans and non-veterans

Document Type


Publication Date



BACKGROUND: Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals, especially veterans, experience elevated rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide related behaviors compared to gender majority individuals. Research has yet to compare TGD veterans to non-veterans or look at correlates of NSSI and related behaviors to suicide related outcomes. This study examines prevalence and suicide related correlates of NSSI among TGD veterans and TGD non-veterans. METHOD: Data analyzed in the were part of the Trans Lifeline Mental Health Survey. Both TGD veterans (N = 313) and non-veterans (N = 3,972) completed an online, cross-sectional survey that included self-report measures of NSSI, suicidal ideation (SI), and suicidal attempt (SA) along with lifetime hospitalization and avoidance of care due to NSSI. RESULTS: Results of this paper indicate that prevalence of NSSI, SI, and SA are elevated in both the TGD veterans and non-veteran subpopulations. Further, veterans compared to non-veterans have a lower prevalence of NSSI but higher prevalence of hospitalization when self-harm is inflicted, reflecting more healthcare utilization or increased severity of NSSI episodes. Additionally, veterans were less likely to avoid care due to NSSI. Further, veteran status seemed to be a protective factor against demographic differences that increased rates of NSSI history in non-veteran TGD individuals. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of this study include its cross-sectional study design, one question assessing SA, and few TGD male veterans. CONCLUSION: NSSI is an important risk factor in future suicide related outcome such as SI and SA. Further, differences in healthcare utilization among TGD veterans and non-veterans are apparent.

Publication Source (Journal or Book title)

Journal of affective disorders

First Page


Last Page


This document is currently not available here.