Resveratrol inhibits rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via estrogen receptor dependent nitric oxide production

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Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is pivotal in the progression of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and restenosis. Resveratrol is a grape polyphenol that is implicated as an important contributor to red wine's vascular protective effects. Its antimitogenic action on VSMC is attributed to an array of pleiotropic effects, including modulation of the estrogen receptor (ER). To elucidate the mechanisms underlying resveratrol-mediated ER modulation and its inhibition of VSMC proliferation, we treated VSMC with resveratrol with or without the ER antagonist ICI 182,780 and measured cell proliferation and nitric oxide (NO) production. Resveratrol dose-dependently decreased VSMC DNA synthesis, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3.73+/-0.57 microM, and dramatically slowed cell growth, but did not induce VSMC apoptosis. Resveratrol-mediated decrease in proliferation was reversed by cotreatment with ICI 182,780, and resveratrol effectively competed with 17beta-estradiol for binding to the ER, exhibiting an IC50 of 8.92+/-0.14 microM. Resveratrol induced a sustained increase in ER-dependent NO production. Further, resveratrol-mediated decrease in VSMC proliferation was blunted by cotreatment with the general nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N5-(1-Iminomethyl)-L-ornithine, dihydrochloride or with the inducible NOS (iNOS)-selective inhibitor S,S'-1,4-phenylene-bis (1,2-ethanediyl)bis-isothiourea, dihydrobromide, but not with the neuronal NOS-selective inhibitor 7-nitroindazole. Though resveratrol did not alter iNOS protein levels, it dose-dependently increased levels of iNOS activity, of the iNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), and of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I protein, the rate-limiting enzyme in BH4 biosynthesis. In addition, all of these effects were abolished by cotreatment with ICI 182,780. Thus, the antimitogenic effects of resveratrol on VSMC may be mediated by an ER-induced increase in iNOS activity.

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Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology

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