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The required set of operations for universal continuous-variable quantum computation can be divided into two primary categories: Gaussian and non-Gaussian operations. Furthermore, any Gaussian operation can be decomposed as a sequence of phase-space displacements and symplectic transformations. Although Gaussian operations are ubiquitous in quantum optics, their experimental realizations generally are approximations of the ideal Gaussian unitaries. In this work, we study different performance criteria to analyze how well these experimental approximations simulate the ideal Gaussian unitaries. In particular, we find that none of these experimental approximations converge uniformly to the ideal Gaussian unitaries. However, convergence occurs in the strong sense, or if the discrimination strategy is energy bounded, then the convergence is uniform in the Shirokov-Winter energy-constrained diamond norm and we give explicit bounds in this latter case. We indicate how these energy-constrained bounds can be used for experimental implementations of these Gaussian unitaries in order to achieve any desired accuracy.

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Physical Review Research