We present a theoretical study of the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped inside an expanding toroid that can realize an analog inflationary universe. As the system expands, we find that phonons in the BEC undergo redshift and damping due to quantum pressure effects, owing to the thinness of the ring. We predict that rapidly expanding toroidal BEC's can exhibit spontaneous particle creation, and study this phenomenon in the context of an initial coherent state wave function. We show how particle creation would be revealed in the atom density and density correlations, and discuss connections to the cosmological theory of inflation.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Physical Review A
Bhardwaj, A., Vaido, D., & Sheehy, D. (2021). Inflationary dynamics and particle production in a toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate. Physical Review A, 103 (2) https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.103.023322