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Free-electron lasers (FELs) can produce radiation in the short wavelength range extending from the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) to the X-rays with a few to a few tens of femtoseconds pulse duration. These facilities have enabled significant breakthroughs in the field of atomic, molecular, and optical physics, implementing different schemes based on two-color photoionization mechanisms. In this article, we present the generation of attosecond pulse trains (APTs) at the seeded FEL FERMI using the beating of multiple phase-locked harmonics. We demonstrate the complex attosecond waveform shaping of the generated APTs, exploiting the ability to manipulate independently the amplitudes and the phases of the harmonics. The described generalized attosecond waveform synthesis technique with an arbitrary number of phase-locked harmonics will allow the generation of sub-100 as pulses with programmable electric fields.

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Applied Sciences (Switzerland)