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Scalable quantum computation with linear optics was considered to be impossible due to the lack of efficient two-qubit logic gates, despite the ease of implementation of one-qubit gates. Two-qubit gates necessarily need a non-linear interaction between the two photons, and the efficiency of this non-linear interaction is typically very small in bulk materials. However, it has recently been shown that this barrier can be circumvented with effective non-linearities produced by projective measurements, and with this work linear-optical quantum computing becomes a new avenue towards scalable quantum computation. We review several issues concerning the principles and requirements of this scheme. © 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

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Experimental Aspects of Quantum Computing

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