Quantum imaging and information

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The maturity of fields such as optical physics and quantum optics has brought with it a new era where the photon represents a promising information resource. In the past few years, scientists and engineers have exploited multiple degrees of freedom of the photon to perform information processing for a wide variety of applications. Of particular importance, the transverse spatial degree of freedom has offered a flexible platform to test complex quantum information protocols in a relatively simple fashion. In this regard, novel imaging techniques that exploit the quantum properties of light have also been investigated. In this review article, we define the fundamental parameters that describe the spatial wavefunction of the photon and establish their importance for applications in quantum information processing. More specifically, we describe the underlying physics behind remarkable protocols in which information is processed through high-dimensional spatial states of photons with sub-shot-noise levels or where quantum images with unique resolution features are formed. We also discuss the fundamental role that certain imaging techniques have played in the development of novel methods for quantum information processing and vice versa.

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Reports on Progress in Physics

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