Characterization of high-order harmonic radiation on femtosecond and attosecond time scales

R. López-Martens, Lunds Tekniska Högskola
J. Mauritsson, Lunds Tekniska Högskola
P. Johnsson, Lunds Tekniska Högskola
K. Varjú, Lunds Tekniska Högskola
A. L'Huillier, Lunds Tekniska Högskola
W. Kornelis, ETH Zürich
J. Biegert, ETH Zürich
U. Keller, ETH Zürich
M. Gaarde, Louisiana State University
K. Schafer, Louisiana State University


We characterize the temporal structure of high-order harmonic radiation on both the femtosecond and attosecond time scales. The harmonic emission is characterized by mixed-color two-photon ionization with an infrared femtosecond laser using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer where both pump and probe arms travel completely separate paths. In a first experiment, we measure the duration and chirp of individual harmonics. In a second experiment, we resolve, for the first time with this type of setup, the attosecond beating of several harmonics generated under conditions similar to the first experiment. We suggest that the results of both measurements can be combined to determine the full attosecond time structure of the harmonic emission.