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We present a theoretical study of temporal, spectral, and spatial reshaping of intense, ultrafast x-ray pulses propagating through a resonant medium. Our calculations are based on the solution of a three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger-Maxwell equation, with the incident x-ray photon energy on resonance with the core-level 1s-3p transition in neon. We study the evolution of the combined incident and medium-generated field, including the effects of stimulated emission, absorption, ionization, and Auger decay, as a function of the input pulse energy and duration. We find that stimulated Raman scattering between core-excited states 1s-13p and 2p-13p occurs at high x-ray intensity, and that the emission around this frequency is strongly enhanced when also including the similar 1s-1-2p-1 response of the ion. We also explore the dependence of x-ray self-induced transparency (SIT) and self-focusing on the pulse intensity and duration, and we find that the stimulated Raman scattering plays an important role in both effects. Finally, we discuss how these nonlinear effects may potentially be exploited as control parameters for pulse properties of x-ray free-electron laser sources.

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Physical Review A