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We build finite time observers for time-varying nonlinear systems with delays in the outputs, using a dynamic extension that computes fundamental matrices. Our observers achieve finite time convergence when no disturbances are present. When disturbances are present, we provide approximate values for the solutions, which lead to an upper bound on the approximation error after a suitable finite time. We illustrate our work in a class of systems arising in the study of vibrating membranes, where time-varying coefficients can be used to represent intermittent measurements.

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Systems and Control Letters