Semester of Graduation

Fall 2023


Master of Arts (MA)



Document Type



Interventions that target both class engagement and academic skills may decrease the likelihood of future reading difficulties in elementary students, amongst other academic deficits. Repeated reading can be used as either a pre-teaching or review strategy to increase overall fluency and comprehension, but the timing of when the intervention is arranged may be important for increasing active student responding (ASR) during class. In this study, we examined how the timing of a repeated reading intervention, as either preparation for or review of reading material, affects active student responding during a small group of three fourth-grade students. Additionally, we investigated student preference for repeated reading as an intervention and when it was delivered. A multi-element design was used to determine the effects of the timing of repeated reading interventions on the participants' behavior. For all 3 participants, the percentage of ASR was variable across baseline, review, and pre-teaching conditions; there were no significant differences in ASR across conditions. For all 3 participants, oral reading fluency (ORF) accuracy during small group was consistently higher for the specific passage that the participant practiced during the pre-teaching intervention (PT passage) in comparison to ORF accuracy during baseline, review, or pre-teaching conditions. Additionally, error frequency was consistently lower for the PT passage in comparison to error frequency during baseline, review, or pre-teaching conditions for all participants. During the choice phase in which the participants could select which intervention they received, all 3 participants selected the pre-teaching condition most frequently. These findings are consistent with literacy research demonstrating that repeated reading increases oral reading fluency of the practiced passage.



Committee Chair

Donaldson, Jeanne M.

Available for download on Saturday, October 31, 2026