Semester of Graduation

Fall 2023


Master of Arts (MA)



Document Type



The present study addressed three primary aims: 1) identify patterns of ethnic-racial socialization (ERS) practices among Black parents with young children, 2) determine the degree to which these patterns varied as a function of general parenting practices and parental depressive symptoms, and 3) examine associations between ERS patterns and young children’s emotional and behavioral functioning. Latent profile analyses were employed on a sample of 156 Black parents (78% mothers) of young children (Mage = 4.21, SD = 1.23; 55% male). Four distinct ERS profile patterns emerged: low engaged (little to no engagement in cultural socialization, preparation for bias, and promotion of mistrust), cultural-bias emphasis (higher levels of cultural socialization and preparation for bias, with no mistrust), balanced/multifaceted (similar levels of engagement across all ERS dimensions), and high mistrust emphasis (similar levels of engagement across all ERS dimensions with higher levels of promotion of mistrust). Positive parenting, but not inconsistent parenting or depressive symptoms, was differentially associated with patterns of ERS. In addition, ERS profiles were related to meaningful differences in young children’s internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Study findings are situated within the context of existing research, and study limitations and the implications of these results for future research directions are outlined.



Committee Chair

Long, Anna C. J.

Available for download on Monday, September 23, 2030