Semester of Graduation

Summer, 2023


Master of Science (MS)


Animal Sciences

Document Type



Two studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of two formulations of a nutritional calming product, Placid 1.0 and Placid 2.0, at keeping beef cattle in a calm state when exposed to environmental factors that put them into an excited state. In the pilot study, nine crossbred beef heifers were orally drenched daily for three days with 60 mL of their respective treatments, pen scores and exit scores were recorded, and blood was collected for cortisol analysis. There were no treatment effects for either treatment on any of the measured behavioral parameters or serum cortisol concentrations.

The products were reformulated after the pilot study to be used in a feeding trial. For this study, thirty Brangus cross steers were fed the products for three days. Pen score, chute score, and exit velocity were measured on d0, 4, and 7. Exit velocities were divided into quintiles and assigned a modified exit score on a scale of 1-5. Pen score, chute score, and modified exit score were averaged to get an individual temperament score. Blood was collected on d0, 4, and 7 for cortisol and macromineral analysis.

Data were analyzed using repeated measures (mixed model) ANOVA in Prism® (GraphPad Prism 9.5.1 for Windows), post-hoc analyses were conducted using Fishers LSD test, and significance was declared at P

Stress levels in beef cattle are an important consideration for the beef industry due to its impact on growth and production, end product, disease susceptibility, and reproduction. Affordable and efficacious calming products could have an important impact on the beef industry by increasing returns in key production areas.



Committee Chair

Williams, Cathleen

Included in

Beef Science Commons