Semester of Graduation

Summer 2023


Master of Construction Management (MCM)


Construction Management

Document Type



Conventional construction with steel reinforcement is widely accepted and utilized worldwide for its proven strength, durability, design flexibility, cost-effectiveness, and due to available standards and design codes. Integration of reinforcement in construction 3D printing, however, presents multi-faceted challenges that may influence the structural properties of printed components and have hindered the widespread adoption of reinforced 3D-printed structures. This study explored two complementary reinforcement techniques, namely, steel fibers and threaded reinforcement, to reinforce 3D-printed structures. This study explored both the fresh and hardened properties of 3D-printed mixtures that contain very high steel fiber dosages of up to 2.5% by volume. Additionally, other relevant factors such as the sand-to-powder ratio and the limestone content were investigated to understand how these factors impact the properties and the printing process. The fresh properties of the mixtures were examined to evaluate their printability and flow characteristics. Additionally, the hardened properties were thoroughly evaluated to assess the compressive strength, flexural strength, and tensile strength of the specimens. After successfully printing mixtures with 2.5% steel fibers, standard beams were 3D-printed for flexural strength tests, and anisotropic properties were explored in different testing directions. Two different threaded reinforcements and four different configurations of 3D-printed beams were designed for investigation. A semi-automated device was developed to assist the penetration of threaded reinforcement. The results revealed that threaded reinforcements improved the flexural performance of the 3D-printed beams. While the improvement was not significant, the overall process of integrating threaded reinforcements with further optimization seems to have great potential to improve the desired structural integrity of 3D-printed mixtures.



Committee Chair

Kazemian, Ali