Semester of Graduation

Summer 2022


Master of Science in Industrial Engineering (MSIE)


Industrial Engineering

Document Type



Virtual reality (VR) technology has been in development for many decades, with recent strides in the consumer market. Head-mounted displays (HMDs) provide an immersive VR experience by inserting users into an artificially constructed digital world. However, there is currently no standardized tool for measuring the usability of a VR system or environment. The GUESS-18 is a validated usability questionnaire designed for measuring the usability of video games with 9 factors present in video games. The objective of this study was to validate the GUESS-18 for measuring the usability of VR in a gaming environment.

Participants played Assetto Corsa, a racing game, with an HMD in VR and with a traditional monitor. The best lap times were recorded as a performance measure. Errors were also recorded, which included driving off the track or colliding with a wall. Users answered the GUESS-18 and the System Usability Scale (SUS) after their experience. They also answered the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) before and after using VR. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed to determine the validity of the GUESS-18’s measurements for usability of the racing game in VR.

The GUESS-18 is an accurate and effective tool for measuring usability of the game in VR. The Comparative Fit Index (CFI) and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) values indicate appropriate model fit, with values of 0.967 and 0.056, respectively. VR yielded significantly faster lap times by about 5%. No other differences were found for performance. Usability scores from the GUESS-18 were significantly higher in the VR condition than the traditional monitor by about 6.4%. SSQ scores were significantly higher after engaging with VR by 282.5%. No differences were found for SUS scores between display conditions. We also found that playing the game in VR resulted in greater immersion and personal gratification than playing with the monitor. Future research should focus on the development and validation of a generalized VR usability tool that captures the latent factors when using a VR system.



Committee Chair

Ikuma, Laura