Semester of Graduation

Summer 2022


Master of Science in Industrial Engineering (MSIE)

Document Type



High initial costs, mainly due to inefficient construction processes, remains the greatest barrier for residential adoption of solar+storage (SPS) system. Modular construction, having a factory-controlled environment and control over the home design, is well suited to address these issues (e.g., efficiencies, waste, inventory control, quality). Furthermore, these areas have great potential in modular construction to address the high initial cost issue. This study focuses on the integration of SPS installation upstream in modular housing. Although moving the SPS installation process into the factory has many barriers (e.g., including change of scope of work at some workstations without affecting the whole production line, change of quality control, warehousing of SPS in correct conditions, change in the supply chain and required certification of workers), the great potential presented by modular construction methods warrants the study. In this study barriers for industry adoption of integrating SPS installation upstream in modular construction are identified. Furthermore, analyses of on-site installation cost and in-factory installation cost through factory information modeling are performed, as well as a job safety analysis. Results reveal that by integrating SPS installation into the production line of modular construction, a 37% reduction in installation time is achieved, compared with onsite installation. Overall, a 21% reduction of total cost could be achieved if SPS is installed in-factory. Furthermore, with the in-factory approach, 28% of safety hazards related to SPS installation activities are removed. Such approach could increase SPS installation productivity, reduce inspection time, reduce costly on-site rework, and overall address the SPS system affordability issue.



Committee Chair

Nahmens, Isabelina



Available for download on Monday, June 30, 2025