Semester of Graduation

Spring 2022


Master of Mass Communication (MMC)


Mass Communication

Document Type



All-women races are steadily growing in politics as more women run with every election. While research shows how women campaign and face stereotypes when facing a male opponent or a female opponent, it does not assess how candidates may change their strategies when facing a male opponent or a female opponent. I ask if female candidates’ campaign differently on stereotypic issues between a mixed-gender election to an all-female election, specifically looking at the use of Twitter. These results showed that Democratic female candidates used more feminine-based issues facing a female opponent versus a male opponent. These results also show that Republican female candidates use more feminine issues facing a female challenger, but Republican women do not face male opponents as much as Democratic women. As such, the gender of the opponent for a female candidate will increase the use of feminine issues, but it could also be dependent on more factors than the opponent's gender.

Committee Chair

Bauer, Nichole



Available for download on Monday, March 24, 2025