Semester of Graduation

May 2020


Master of Arts (MA)


Foreign Languages & Literatures

Document Type



In this research, I utilize the works of Benito Pérez Galdós and Emilia Pardo Bazán spanning from 1882 to 1911. Each of the novels selected by these two authors shares the common theme of the crisis of masculinity in a slowly modernizing Spain. Galdós creates outdated Spanish gallants contrasted with young powerful women to expose the backwards ideals of Spain’s aging men. Pardo Bazán constructs her depiction of this crisis of masculinity through her naturalistic scope creating bleak and nihilistic characters whose anxieties towards the rapidly modernizing country result in an obsession with death. Both authors create their own image of the new Spanish man to represent the rising male generation; and as the country continues to modernize, the depiction of this man changes. Through the works El amigo Manso (1882); Tormento (1884), Tristana (1892); El abuelo (1897); La sirena negra (1908); and La quimera (1911), I am able to observe this crumbling masculinity timeline develop from its early stages after the Glorious Revolution, to the years right before the Cuban War of Independence in 1898, and in the devasting outcome of the war and the loss of Spain’s final colonies.

Committee Chair

Heneghan, Dorota



Available for download on Friday, March 12, 2027