Master of Arts (MA)


Communication Sciences and Disorders

Document Type



Due to increased interest in the area of voice problems and treatment among transgender individuals in recent years, a study about vocal experiences, vocal handicap, and participation in treatment methods among this population is needed. This study examined vocal handicap among transgender women, transgender men, and individuals identifying as a non-binary gender through an online questionnaire. The goals of the study were to compare vocal handicap between transgender men and women as well as those who had participated in voice therapy and those who had not. Another goal was to identify reasons among transgender individuals for not participating in voice therapy. Analysis of the answers from 233 participants of the survey revealed a wide range of attitudes and opinions about voice and voice therapy. Among transgender women, there was no significant difference in voice handicap among participants who had participated in voice therapy and those who had not. In transgender men, on the other hand, there was a significant difference between vocal handicap in participants who had experienced voice changes secondary to hormone therapy and those who had not; however, a surprising 39% of transgender men still had a Transgender Self-Evaluation Questionnaire score indicating a severe vocal handicap. No significant difference between Transgender Self-Evaluation Questionnaire scores was noted between transgender women and transgender men. A third group, those who identified outside the gender binary, emerged, and appeared to also have a range of experiences and attitudes about voice, both positive and negative.



Document Availability at the Time of Submission

Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.

Committee Chair

Kunduk, Melda