Master of Science (MS)


Dairy Science (Animal, Dairy, and Poultry Sciences)

Document Type



Forty-eight calves (heifers n=20, bulls n=28) were randomly assigned one of four dietary treatments which included no additive (C); the yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YC); the probiotics Bacillus lichenformis and Bacillus subtilis (P); and both yeast culture and probiotics (YCP). Calves were administered treatments from day 2 to 56 in starter and from day 57 to 84 in grower diets. Body weights were measured at birth and weekly thereafter until day 112 of age. Wither and hip heights were measured weekly. Feed intake, water intake, and fecal scores were recorded twice daily until day 56. Rumen fluid was collected on days 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, and 112 for analysis of pH, VFA, and NH3. Blood was collected on d 28, 42, 56, 84, and 112 for analysis of BHBA concentrations. There was a sex*treatment interaction (P < 0.01) for starter intake. Males receiving P consumed less than other calves. Females consuming C ate less than males on the same diet. Females consuming YC ate more than males consuming YC. There was a tendency (P = 0.06) for calves receiving YC to consume more than calves not fed YC. Calves consuming P drank less water than all other calves (P = 0.01). There was a sex*time*treatment interaction for body weight (P < 0.05). Females consuming C and males consuming P showed a decreased body weight over time (P < 0.05). Calves consuming YC showed an increased body weight at week 6 and 8 (P < 0.05). There were no differences among treatment groups for hip and wither height (P > 0.1). Calves consuming YC had higher fecal scores than those with no YC (P < 0.05). There were no differences among treatments on pH, NH3, BHBA, butyrate, and propionate (P > 0.1). A sex*treatment*week interaction occurred for acetate (P < 0.05). Calves consuming P had an increase in acetate, with females showing a greater increase over males. Incorporating YC into starter may result in an increase in growth. However, this effect did not continue after weaning. Rumen development remains unaffected by addition of YC and P to grain diets.



Document Availability at the Time of Submission

Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.

Committee Chair

Cathleen C. Williams



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Dairy Science Commons