Master of Science (MS)



Document Type



This study investigated a model of students’ control beliefs and task value in physical education (PE). Specifically, it examined relationships among students’ perceptions of their teachers’ communication and instructional clarity, control beliefs and values toward PE, and academic emotions. High school students (N= 529) completed valid and reliable instruments assessing perceptions of teacher characteristics, control, value, enjoyment, and boredom in PE. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and internal reliability estimates were calculated. A path analysis was used to test the hypothesis that teacher communication and clarity would be related to control-value appraisals which would in turn, positively predict enjoyment or boredom. Indirect effects of teacher variables and emotional experiences were also tested with the path analysis. Findings revealed a good fit of the proposed model (CFI = .99; TLI = .96; RMSEA = .069). Teacher clarity was a stronger predictor than teacher communication of both control (â= .28, p< .01, R2 =. 09) and value (â= .19, p< .01, R2 =. 07). Students’ value beliefs toward PE positively predicted enjoyment (â= .71, p< .001) and negatively predicted boredom (â= -.61, p< .001). Control beliefs negatively predicted boredom (â= -.13, p< .05). A total of 58% of the variance in enjoyment and 47% in boredom were explained in the model. This study provides information about establishing effective learning environments that help PE students experience more enjoyment and less boredom. The tenets of control value theory (Pekrun, 2006) were supported, suggesting the framework can systematically investigate student emotions in PE contexts. From a practical standpoint, the importance of instructional clarity in relation to student control and value beliefs in PE highlight the need for teachers to use a variety of clarifying strategies such as effective demonstrations, individual and group feedback, and redirection and refinement when students are confused. Clarity and content value are especially important for secondary PE because this can shape students’ healthy habits as they move into adulthood. Emotional experience is consequently an important outcome that can link to increases in learning and healthy habits outside of school.



Document Availability at the Time of Submission

Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.

Committee Chair

Solmon, Melinda



Included in

Kinesiology Commons