Master of Music (MM)



Document Type



The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of tempo on movement responses of children ages one to three. For two weeks, 17 children between the ages of 22 and 36 months were videotaped twice per week to observe and measure their movement responses to fast and slow musical stimuli. During these sessions, the children were videotaped in their classrooms, engaged in either free play or in a quiet group activity. The videotaped sessions were then analyzed using a Motor Observation Form. Once all of the tapes had been viewed and scored, overall percentages of movement and no movement were calculated for the fast and slow selections. Within the movement category, overall percentages for locomotor, axial, and small motor movements were calculated as well. Results indicated no significant difference overall due to the main effect of tempo (p > .05). A significant difference was found among the age groups in means for overall movement (p = .0001). Children in the middle age group (26-29 mos.) exhibited more movement responses than those in the youngest group (22-26 mos.) and the oldest group (29-36 mos.). Comparing the three movement categories also indicated a significant difference among the categories (p < .0001). Small motor movements were exhibited more frequently than axial and locomotor movements by a margin of 4:1. Results suggested a relationship between age and music tempo (p = .0196). The youngest and middle groups moved more during the slow selections, but the oldest group moved the most during the fast selections.



Document Availability at the Time of Submission

Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.

Committee Chair

Jane W. Cassidy



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Music Commons