Master of Science (MS)


School of Nutrition and Food Sciences

Document Type



Approximately 6% of children and approximately 4% of adults in the western countries including the United States (US) have food allergies. Milk allergy is reported to be one of the most common food allergies affecting as high as 7% in the US. Celiac disease affects approximately 1% of the US population. Such individuals are required to maintain diets restricting milk and gluten. Autism is estimated to affect over 673,000 in the US. A milk-free gluten-free diet is recommended for autism. The gluten grains identified are wheat, oats, barley and rye and any by-products or cross-bred grains of these products. Foods containing milk and milk by-products include those with casein, whey, curds, and glycomacropeptide (GMP). Literature search indicates problems including high cost, labeling, difficulty in finding specialty items, and quality contributed to difficulties maintaining a gluten-free diet. A study of several local specialty stores and groceries to establish the availability of gluten-free food products that were also milk-free was performed. Celiac consumers were asked to complete a survey on the gluten-free products found in the store survey. The survey was to identify product problems. The conclusion from these two studies was that gluten-free bread products was the most unsatisfactory and there was a need to develop a desirable bread product. Two gluten-free milk-free French breads were developed comparable to wheat French bread. Several gluten-free flours and combination gluten-free flours were tested using the Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA). Texture, color, microbiological analyses and gluten testing procedures were performed. General and target sensory population studies were performed. The non-Celiac population results revealed marginal acceptability. The Celiac population sensory study rated the gluten-free milk-free breads as acceptable. Intent to purchase both gluten-free loaves of bread was rated acceptable.



Document Availability at the Time of Submission

Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.

Committee Chair

King, Joan M.



Included in

Life Sciences Commons