Master of Science (MS)


School of Nutrition and Food Sciences

Document Type



Crawfish and shrimp byproducts are an excellent source of astaxanthin. The antioxidant-rich natural astaxanthin dispersed in alpha linolenic acid-rich flaxseed oil (FO) may provide healthier functional food options for US consumers. The goals of this study were to extract astaxanthin from crawfish and shrimp byproducts and to develop astaxanthin dry powders using microencapsulation technology. Astaxanthin extracted with FO from crawfish (FOCA) and shrimp (FOSA) byproducts were stable at 30 and 40 Ž, but had substantial degradation at 50 and 60 Ž during four 4 h heating. The astaxathin degradation of FOCA and FOSA fitted with zero and first orders kinetics showed that the rate constant for astaxanthin degradation of FOCA and FOSA increased with increased temperature and first order kinetics could be used to describe the degradation of astaxanthin in FOCA and FOSA between 30 to 60 Ž, while zero order kinetics might describe the astaxanthin degradation in FOCA and FOSA at 60 Ž. The emulsions prepared with FOCA (ECA) and FOSA (ESA) were spray dried to produce microencapsulated powders containing FOCA (MCA) and FOSA (MSA) using a pilot scale spray dryer. The energy required to spray dry 0.433 kg ECA and 0.428 kg ESA was 10220 and 10280 kJ, respectively. The astaxanthin concentration of MCA and MSA was 13.76}0.37 and 16.08}0.24 ƒÊg/g powder, respectively. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) was the predominant fatty acid in MCA and MSA, which accounted for 56.32 % and 55.47 % for MCA and MSA, respectively. The lipid oxidation of MCA and MSA was lower at 5 Ž storage than those at 25 Ž and 40 Ž during 26 days storage. Degradation of astaxanthin in MCA and MSA fitted with first order reaction kinetics model showed that the degradation rate constants for MCA and MSA increased with increased storage temperature. This which indicated that astaxanthin degraded faster at higher temperature than that at lower temperature. This study demonstrated that astaxanthin extracted from crawfish and shrimp byproducts using flaxseed oil can be microencapsulated using spray drying technology.



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