Master of Science (MS)


Human Ecology

Document Type



The purpose of these studies was to determine whether weight status, nutrient intake, and dietary adequacy were associated with breakfast consumption patterns. A representative sample of African American (AA) children and adolescents who participated in 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used in a secondary data analysis. Participants were first grouped by age: 1-12 years of age (y) (n=1,389), 13-18 y (n = 988) and then by breakfast consumption category: breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) consumers, and other breakfast consumers. A single multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recall was conducted using computer-assisted software to record dietary intake. To estimate dietary adequacy, the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) was calculated by expressing micronutrient intake as a percentage of the Estimated Average Requirement , truncated to no more than 100%, and averaged over 13 micronutrients: vitamins A, E, C, B1, B2, B6, B12; niacin; folate; phosphorus; magnesium; iron; and zinc. Sample-weighted data were used in all statistical analyses. In children, 7.4% of AA 1-5 y and 16.9% of AA 6-12 y, respectively, skipped breakfast while RTEC consumers included 45% and 38%, respectively. In AA 13-18 y, 36.8% skipped breakfast and 19.4% consumed RTEC at breakfast. Ready-to-eat cereal consumers 1-12 y had the lowest mean body mass index (BMI) (p≤0.05) and mean waist circumference (WC) (p≤0.05). They also had the highest mean intakes of vitamins A, B-6, and B-12; thiamin; riboflavin; niacin; folate; calcium; iron; and zinc; highest MAR (p≤0.05); and the highest intake of carbohydrates and total sugars, and the lowest intakes of total fat (p≤0.05). RTEC consumers 13-18 y had lower mean WC (p≤0.05) and BMI (p≤0.05) than breakfast skippers. Adolescent RTEC consumers and other breakfast consumers had higher mean energy intakes than breakfast skippers (p≤0.05) and had the highest MAR, while breakfast skippers had the lowest MAR (p<0.05). Adolescent RTEC breakfast consumers had higher intakes of vitamins A, B-6, B-12; thiamin; riboflavin, niacin; folate; and minerals calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, and potassium than breakfast skippers and other breakfast consumers (p<0.05). Consuming an RTEC breakfast was associated with improved weight, nutrient intake, and dietary adequacy in AA children and adolescents.



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Committee Chair

Carol E O'Neil



Included in

Human Ecology Commons