Master of Science (MS)


School of Nutrition and Food Sciences

Document Type



Protein with essential amino acids is required for recovering, repairing, and building muscles after intensive exercise. A powder produced with egg white (EW) (high quality protein) and fish oil (menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) (MO) oil or salmon oil (SO)) with high DHA and EPA content should be particularly beneficial for athletes. The objective of this study was to develop microencapsulated omega-3 fatty acids fortified EW powders. Two stable emulsions were prepared with 3.43% (MO) or (SO), 56.21% EW, and 40.36% water (E-MO-EW and E-SO-EW). An EW with water solution (without fish oil) (E-EW) was prepared as a control. Two emulsions (E-MO-EW; E-SO-EW) and E-EW solution were separately spray dried at 130, 140, and 150 oC inlet air temperatures producing three microencapsulated menhaden oil fortified EW powders, three microencapsulated salmon oil fortified EW powders, and three egg white powders (dried E-EW). Physical and chemical properties of E-EW, E-MO-EW and E-SO-EW were determined and the energy used to spray dry them was estimated. The powders were analyzed for color, fatty acids methyl esters (FAME), protein, fat, moisture, ash, amino acid profile, minerals, microstructure and particle size. Microencapsulated efficiency (ME) was estimated only for microencapsulated fish oil fortified EW powders. Triplicate experiments were conducted and data statistically analyzed (á=0.05). The actual production rate of powders ranged from 0.056 to 0.060 (kg dry solids/h). More energy was used to spray dry E-EW, E-MO-EW, and E-SO-EW at 150°C than at 130 and 140oC inlet air temperature. The inlet air temperature did not affect the EPA or DHA content of MO and SO or the microencapsulation efficiency. The protein content of the oil fortified powders was lower than that of the dried E-EW powders. Leucine was the main essential amino acid found in all the powders. Most of the powders’ particles ranged in size from 20 to 30 µm. The study demonstrated that high quality egg white protein with omega-3 can be produced by microencapsulation. Oil fortified egg white powders could provide benefits for athletes who do high intensity exercise. This study also identifies opportunities for development of microencapsulated omega-3 fatty acids fortified egg white powders.



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Committee Chair

Sathivel, Subramaniam



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