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This study an attempt has been made to analyse the social structure of Chauvin, a line village on Bayou Petit Caillou in Terrebonne Parish in southern Louisiana. The following characteristics were selected for analysis: first, the descent of the families in the community; second, the language composition of the population in the community; third, the religious life and religious affiliation of the people in the community; fourth, the occupational and economic characteristics of the natives of Chauvin; fifth, the educational facilities, and the attitudes toward education; sixth, the housing conditions found in the village; and seventh, the sooial activities of the population in the village. The writer is well acquainted in Chauvin, having a brother living there, as well as many other relatives. Data for this study were obtained in a survey of one hundred and fifty-three homes, from studying sources in the library of ths University of Louisiana, and by interviewing the natives, many of whom the writer has known since childhood. Throughout the study particular attention was concentrated on the form of settlement represented by this community. It was found that this type of settlement made possible many sooial advantages instrumental in fostering the social solidarity and sooial cohesion found in Chauvin. The population is not only characterised by a high percent of home ownership, but, since the community derives its existence from the sea, by boat ownership as well.Tho Catholic Church is the only church in Chauvin and it exerts a tremendous influence on the homes of these people. A peculiar characteristic is the retention of much of the French influence. This social heritage plus the social control exercised by the church have made these a delightful people one who is able to laugh, and work, and live.