Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Communication Sciences and Disorders

First Advisor

Janet A. Norris


A time series control group study was completed to investigate the efficacy of Communicative Reading Strategies (CRS) as an instructional approach for improving the oral reading, question answering, and narrative retelling abilities of LLD students. The participants were 10 LLD students who ranged in age from 9 to 12 years and 5 reading-age matched (RAM) peers who ranged in age from 7 to 9 years. Five of the LLD subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment group (TLD), while the remaining 5 LLD subjects were assigned to a no-treatment group (NLD). All three groups participated in a series of probes (one pre-test, one post-test, and two intermittent probes) which involved (a) reading a fictional story aloud; (b) answering a series of factual, interpretation and inference questions about the story; and (c) retelling the story in their own words. The TLD group received treatment prior to participating in Probes 2 and 3 (a treatment period lasting approximately 4 weeks), while the NLD and RAM groups received no treatment and participated only in the series of probes. Measurements of oral reading speed and accuracy, accuracy of responses to questions, and quality of oral narrative retellings were taken during the probes. Findings were mixed. Miscue analysis revealed positive effects for treatment. Question and narrative probes did not. Findings are discussed in terms of how they contribute to our understanding of treatment efficacy research and our understanding of reading and processing strategies of LLD and normal reading students.