Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

B. Don Franks


This study investigated cardiorespiratory, hematological, and psychological responses to acute submaximal exercise, and recovery in end stage renal disease patients. Five African-American males on hemodialysis, were randomly assigned to three exercise treatments (30 minutes on the treadmill at 60% VO$\sb2$ peak): pre dialysis (2 hours before), post dialysis (1 hour after), and off dialysis (24 hours after last dialysis). The cardiorespiratory (CR) variables were: ventilation (V$\sb{\rm E}$), oxygen consumption (VO$\sb2$), carbon dioxide production (VCO$\sb2$), respiratory exchange ratio (R), and kilocalories (KCAL/min). The hematological variables were: blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), albumin (Al), total protein (Tp), glucose (Gl), sodium (Na$\sp{++}$), potassium (K$\sp+$), hemoglobin (Hg), hematocrit (Ht), ammonium (NH$\sb4$), Creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO$\sb2$), pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO$\sb2$), bicarbonate (HCO$\sb3$), and saturation of oxygen (SaO$\sb2$). The psychological variables were: Borg's rating of perceived exertion (RPE), Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist (MAACL), and Nonspecific Symptoms Questionnaire (NSQ). A randomized block design was used to analyze the data (p $<$.10), with Newman-Keuls post hoc test (p $<$.05). There were significant treatment effects for the following CR variables: VO$\sb2$, VO$\sb2$/kg, and kcal/min. VO$\sb2$/kg was significant when treatments were compared (highest post dialysis, then off dialysis, lowest pre dialysis). There was a significant difference for the time effect for glucose (baseline concentration was higher than the concentrations during and after the exercise). There were significant differences for the treatment effects in: BUN, Cr, Na$\sp{++}$, K$\sp+$, pH, LDH, CPK, and HCO$\sb3$ (differences were pre vs. post, and post vs. off). Only LDH and CPK were significantly different in pre vs. off. There were time effects in: shortness of breath, joint pain, cramps, and muscle weakness. Exercise relieved the symptoms. Mood score for depression had a significant treatment effect (post vs. off). This study demonstrated that these patients can safely exercise at 60% of VO$\sb2$ peak. Kidney disease patients should be encouraged to participate in exercise for the acute psychological effects and the long term physiological effects.