Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


School of Animal Science

First Advisor

John U. McGregor


Seventy percent reduced fat Cheddar cheese was manufactured with homogenized cream and sweet cream buttermilk powder in an effort to improve flavor and texture characteristics. Manufacturing procedures, as well as the chemical, physical and sensory attributes. Pasteurized cream was homogenized (15.8 MPa) with and without the addition of buttermilk powder. The cream was added to pasteurized skim milk to produce two vats of cheese, one with and one without buttermilk powder. After milling, each vat was split to produce a washed curd and normal curd cheese. The four cheeses were sampled at week one, and months one, two and four. Both buttermilk cheeses had a stronger cheddar flavor, described as sulfide, by the fourth month. There was no significant difference in the percent of citric acid pH 4.6 soluble nitrogen between control and treatment cheeses. The percent of soluble nitrogen increased over time for all groups. Gel electrophoresis failed to identify fat globule membrane proteins from the buttermilk powder in the 4 month old cheeses. Membrane proteins were found in the wheys of both treatment and control cheeses. Analysis of the free fatty acids was conducted on the extracts of the cheese by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography. No significant differences were noted. Reversed phase HPLC of the citric acid and pH 4.6 soluble peptide fractions identified one peak as having a consistently greater area in the buttermilk cheese. Sensory analysis was conducted on lowfat cheese made with homogenized cream and lowfat cheese made with homogenized cream and buttermilk powder. An experienced panel of 8 conducted attribute analysis. Control cheeses were firmer, more crumbly and more curdy than the buttermilk cheeses. Buttermilk cheeses were more bitter, acid, sulfide, unclean and had a stronger flavor than the control. Consumer evaluations were conducted at 2, 3 and 4 months of aging. Buttermilk cheese had a significantly softer texture in the first panel at two months of aging. The control cheese was preferred for flavor and overall liking after three and four months of aging.