Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

First Advisor

Janet A. Morris


The specific aim of this project was to determine the efficacy of an integrated approach to remediation of oral language and reading. Communicative Reading Strategies (CRS) (Norris, 1985) was used with a group of twenty-one high-risk first grade students. Improvements were measured for aspects of language development that are specifically related to success in oral language use and reading. Nine children demonstrating below average performance on standardized measures assessing language and reading received intervention. A control group of 12 matched children served to control for changes as a result of maturation or general curriculum effect. The treatment group received intervention four days per week for 45 minutes each day for eight weeks during the summer. Changes in performance on both standardized reading and language measures and informal reading measures from pre-treatment to post-treatment were used to compare treatment and control groups. Additional posttesting at four months and nine months following treatment compared long term effects. The differences between gain scores for the two groups were compared at three different time intervals. Results revealed significant gains on both the standardized test and on the informal reading assessment. Results verified that CRS is an effective intervention for poor readers. Treatment subjects simultaneously improved on word recognition, reading rate, and comprehension for both measures. The treatment group again showed improvement on word analysis skills that could not be attributed to time or maturation. Although statistical differences were not found between groups on oral language measures, gains for individual subjects suggest CRS treatment positively affected language abilities.