Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Cornelia Yarbrough


The purpose of this study was to identify what good elementary music teachers do by: (a) identifying primary factors that contribute to effective music teaching as defined by exemplary behaviors of recognized music specialists; (b) examining the relationship of teacher-defined instructional values, which emerge through qualitative study to operationally defined characteristics of effective music instruction resulting from quantitative research; and (c) exploring the possibility that qualitative and quantitative methods of research might be complementary. Nine experienced, elementary music specialists from three regions of the country were observed, audio- and videotaped, and interviewed. Interviews with selected students and instructional documents supplemented the data. Both qualitative evaluation and quantitative measurement were used to analyze the data. While modifications of operational definitions for elementary level were required, results showed that the teachers' instructional patterns consistently supported previous research in the areas of teacher magnitude (Yarbrough, 1975) and sequential patterns of instruction (Yarbrough & Price, 1989). Analysis of sequential patterns enabled categorical expansion of complete/incomplete patterns. Qualitative evaluation revealed high intensity behaviors (Madsen & Geringer, 1989), personal values relative to effective teaching (Porter & Brophy, 1988), and increased the potential for accurate interpretation. Specific instructional patterns and behavioral characteristics may be useful for training prospective music teachers and promoting formative evaluation among experienced specialists. Generalizations, however, should be made with caution until this collaborative form of research is developed further and the number of participants expanded.