Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Terry G. Geske

Second Advisor

Timothy D. Chandler


This study analyzed the extent of teachers' unions activities in the eleven states without favorable collective bargaining legislation and the impact of collective bargaining agreements on teachers' wages, employment rates, and per-pupil expenditures. Specifically, school districts were examined in the six states which authorize, but do not require collective bargaining, and the five states which have no legislative provisions concerning collective bargaining for teachers. School districts were examined if student enrollment exceeded 10,000. A two-phased methodology was used to address the research questions. Phase 1 was a qualitative study which utilized data from a survey of school superintendents in selected districts in order to obtain information concerning teacher labor relations. Survey instruments were distributed to 106 school superintendents of which 83 responded. Data from 82 districts were analyzed. Phase 2 was a quantitative study utilizing multiple regression techniques to examine the statistical relationship between teachers' union activities and teachers' wages, employment rates, and per-pupil expenditures within the school district. The results of the qualitative study indicate that teachers' unions are actively engaged in collective bargaining with school boards even though school boards are not required to do so. Approximately thirty percent of the school districts were engaged in collective bargaining with the majority of collective bargaining contracts first being negotiated in the 1960s and 1970s. The rating by superintendents in districts without collective bargaining of teachers' level of concern for four financial and five educational reform issues suggest that the demand for the services provided by teachers' union exist in these districts. The empirical results of Phase 2 of the study indicate that collective bargaining significantly increases wages by approximately 9 percent compared to nonbargaining districts. The effect of a collective bargaining agreement on employment rates was estimated to be approximately 39 percent. The effect of collective bargaining on per-pupil expenditures was found to be less statistically significant and was estimated to be approximately 9 percent. The effect of endorsements of school board candidates by teachers' unions, however, was statistically insignificant in the three equations.