Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

First Advisor

Dennis K. Landin


The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an active, cognitive learning strategy and movement sequence feedback on learning the tennis forehand. Three experiments were conducted which involved manipulations of cognitive learning strategies and/or augmented, movement sequence feedback (AMSF). In Experiment 1 four groups of subjects (Advance Organizer (AO) strategy, Performer Self-Cueing (PSC) strategy, and two Control groups (differentiated by background)) performed 50 trials on 5 separate days in a pretest, posttest design, separated by 3 acquisition days. Subjects who used either strategy had significantly better outcome scores than the two Control groups. The PSC group's movement sequence and outcome scores significantly exceeded the other groups. It could be argued, however, that providing learners with AMSF would serve the same purpose as PSC. In Experiment 2 a Feedback (FB) group, two PSC strategy groups (one with and one without AMSF), and one Control group performed 50 trials per day for 8 days in a pretest, posttest, and retention test design, allotting 5 days for acquisition. The results supported and expanded the findings from Experiment 1, wherein subjects using PSC with or without the addition of AMSF achieved significantly greater movement sequence and outcome scores than the other groups. Additionally, the Feedback group's movement sequence scores significantly surpassed the Control group. In Experiment 3 a Feedback (FB) group and two PSC strategy groups (as in Experiment 2) met for 7 days during their regularly scheduled class period, and were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups during each period in a pretest posttest design with 5 days of acquisition. The positive influence of PSC was again evident in this experiment, although not as conclusively as in Experiments 1 & 2. The movement sequence scores of the subjects using the PSC strategy significantly exceeded those of the Feedback group, but there were no significant differences concerning outcome scores. The findings indicated that PSC can have a positive impact on learning the tennis forehand across various settings.